Copyright © 2013 Prinka Batra et al. The calculated vibrational frequencies are 751 cm−1 (LDA) and 719 cm−1 (GGA), in comparison with the observed  value of 785 cm−1. The term "thermal decomposition" describes splitting up a compound by heating it. It is also a precursor to the ferroelectric perovskite oxide BaTiO3 and a component of the earth’s mantle. The group replaced the sodium by other alkali or alkaline earth metals: calcium, strontium, and barium. ). Hydroxides of alkaline earth metals are basic in nature except for beryllium hydroxide. This result is also in agreement with our earlier calculations [22, 23] for (MgO)12 clusters, which optimized to stacked rings from initial cubic rock salt structures. It is compatible with larger radius change of A and B ions, and the doping of ions with large radius does not change the basic structure. For small MgO clusters, the experimental  vibrational frequency at 640 cm−1 matches with a strong resonance observed at 651 cm−1 in the high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) surface phonon spectrum of the solid surface [49, 50]. The additional electron comes from a 2p orbital of oxygen, and the oxygen atoms have electron configurations close to 1s22s22p5 in all cases. carbonates of alkali metals and NH, Alkaline earth metal nitrates are prepared in solution and can be crystallized as hydrated salt by the action of HNO, All nitrates are soluble in water and decompose on heating to give the corresponding oxides with evolution of NO. In the calculations reported in the paper, first-principles density functional (DF) calculations were performed using the DMol  code [33–36], available from Accelrys Inc. in the Materials Studio 3.2 package. (CaO)4. The increase of the ∠OMgO signifies repulsion between the oxygens. 2M + O 2 2MO ( M = Be, Mg, Ca) MCO 3 MO + CO2 ( M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) Expect BeO all other oxides are extremely stable ionic solids due to their high lattice energies. The external field produced by the larger number of surrounding ions increases the ionic character of the central Ca–O bond, which resembles the Ca–O lattice limit (2.405 Å), while the terminal atoms are closer to the molecular limit (1.822 Å). Required fields are marked *, Characteristics Of Compounds Of Alkaline Earth Metals, The hydroxides of Ca, Ba and Sr are obtained either by treating the metal with cold water or by reacting the corresponding oxide with water. Oxides. This study may have important implications for modeling and understanding the initial growth patterns of small nanostructures of alkaline earth metals. The thermal stability of alkali and alkaline-earth metal hydroxide—nitrate systems has been investigated by thermal analysis, voltammetry and observation with a high-temperature microscope. In this case, three structures, namely, slab, hexagonal, and ladder, were studied (Table 4). Thus, hexagonal rings are slightly more stable than the slab-shaped structures in the case of Hypothesis for the ZT improvement of layered cobalt oxide. The increasing order of the cationic size of the given alkaline earth metals is. Among alkaline earth oxides, MgO has been most frequently studied, probably because samples of definite structure with high surface area are prepared much easily by thermal treatment than samples of CaO, SrO, and BaO. The structures of CaO, … Table 2 gives the calculated energies and the HOMO-LUMO gaps for the various structures. The melts of alkali metal hydroxide—nitrate systems are thermally stable to at least 300°C above the melting temperatures. 2Be + O 2 → 2BeO. In the hexagonal structure, the O–O distance is 3.45 Å, compared to 2.86 Å for the rectangular cluster. 1. Our earlier studies [22, 23] on the (MgO)12 cluster had indicated that the (MgO)12 nanotube, consisting of four stacked hexagonal (MgO)3 rings, is more stable than the bulk-like cubic structure by 0.48 eV. 3) CaCO3 is used in Solvay – ammonia process for manufacture of Na2CO3 , in glass making and in cement manufacture. 1) The cations of group V of qualitative analysis are precipitated as their insoluble carbonates from the solution of their soluble salts by adding (NH4)2CO3 in presence of NH4Cl and excess of NH4OH. The thermal stability; of these carbonates increases down the group, i.e., from Be to Ba, BeCO 3 < MgCO 3 < CaCO 3 < SrCO 3 < BaCO 3 BeCO 3 is unstable to the extent that it is stable only in atmosphere of CO 2. It is observed that the charge on the central (3-coordinate) metal ion decreases with increasing atomic number of the metal ion (−1.311, −0.981, and −0.965, for ladder (CaO)3, (SrO)3, and (BaO)3, resp. In its chemical reactivity, lithium more closely resembles Group 2 (IIa) of the periodic table than it does the other metals of its own group. For She has started this educational website with the mindset of spreading Free Education to everyone. Two distinctly different interplanar distances (1.936 Å and 1.898 Å) are also observed, depending on which atom, Mg or O, sits on the terminal ring of the three-ring stack. Here, MO stands for the four alkali metal oxides, MgO, CaO, BaO, and SrO. [ M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba] Stacks of hexagonal (MO)3 rings are found to be the slightly preferred growth strategy among the (MgO)6, isomers. In order to quantify aromaticity, we used the nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) method proposed by Schleyer et al. Their, The alkaline earth metals combine directly with halogens at appropriate temperature forming halides, MX, The salt containing one or more atoms of oxygen such as oxides ,hydroxides ,carbonate ,bicarbonate ,nitrite ,nitrate ,sulphates ,oxalates and phosphates are called, 1) The sulphate of alkaline earth metal are all white solids. The binding energies (BEs), the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps, Fermi energies, and density of states were also computed. (MO)6 Where M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba. M + 2C → MC 2 MC 2 + 2H 2 O → M (OH) 2 + C 2 H 2 clusters show structural differences: the basic building block is an (MgO)3 hexagonal fragment in the case of MgO and a (CaO)3 rectangular 2 × 3 (or double-chain) fragment for CaO, as the one found in the present studies. , Well-known sodium-cobalt oxide, where sodium and cobalt oxide layers alternate, shows a very low ZT of around 0.03, but the material developed by Ohta's group achieved a ZT of 0.11. The oxides are very stable due to high lattice energy and are used as refractory material. ... To Find Thermal Stability of Metallic Oxides: The thermal stability of the metal oxide depends on its electropositive nature. This behavior continues down the series. alkaline earth metal hydroxides are less soluble in water, basic strength of hydroxides increases down the group, preparation and properties of sulphates of alkaline earth metals, preparation of halides of alkaline earth metal, properties of halides of alkaline earth metal, properties of hydroxides of alkaline earth metals, stability and uses of alkaline earth metals, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 हिन्दी – क्षितिज – Chapter 3 – सवैया, कवित्त – देव, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 हिन्दी – क्षितिज – Chapter 2 – राम लक्ष्मण परशुराम संवाद, NCERT Solutions for Class 10 हिन्दी – क्षितिज – Chapter 1 – पद, Economics Chapter 5 Consumer Rights – Notes & Study Material. Other experimental and theoretical [22, 23, 56] studies also provide evidence for the existence and stabilities of MgO nanotubes. The alkaline earth metals burn in oxygen forming the ionic oxides of the type where stands for alkaline earth metals except which form peroxide. The DOS plots for the nanotube and cube-like structure are qualitatively similar, but one important difference is noticeable. 1) The almost negligible solubility of BaSO4 in water is used in the detection and estimation of SO42‾ ions. In the last few years, considerable effort has been directed to the understanding of metallic and semiconductor clusters. Figure 5 depicts the optimized structures for the (MO)6 clusters for different starting geometries. Whereas the overall patterns of the Sr and Ba compounds are similar to Ca, we note in the case of (BaO)6 the lesser difference in stability between the slab and hexagonal ring-based isomers. As noted earlier, this intense vibration mode for (MgO)6 occurs at a low wavenumber (691 cm−1). ) is obvious from the binding energies per molecule for all systems (except The fact that a small cation can stabilize a small anion and a large cation can stabilize a large anion explains the formation and stability of these oxides. , whereas the opposite is true for The SCF tolerance was set at 1 × 10−5 and the maximum displacement at 0.005 Å. The stability of carbonates and bicarbonates increases down the group. The lowest energy structure for (MgO)5 is obtained from (MgO)4 by capping an edge such that the capping atoms are bicoordinated, while the rest of the atoms are tricoordinated. , the slab structure is still the preferred one, but to a lesser extent. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The central bond length is also longer (2.294 Å) compared to the outer ones (1.952 Å). (SrO)3. The present calculations indicate that the vibrational frequency for this optically allowed stretching motion of oxygen atoms perpendicular to the surface of the (MgO)6 hexagonal cluster is at 691 cm−1 (intensity = 512 km mol−1), while for the slab structure, this band is at 740 cm−1 (intensity = 445 km mol−1). Oxides. , the hexagonal-ring-based structure is the more stable one, although the energy difference between the two structures is small. clusters, while slab-like structures are preferred for the other alkaline earth metal oxide clusters. Thus, the anion-centered nature of the HOMO indicates that its energy depends strongly on the O–O distances. (SrO)4 and (BaO)4 show behavior similar to (CaO)4, except that both LDA and GGA give similar optimized structures for the octagonal form. Here, again, our LDA result shows the best correspondence with experiment. The alkaline earth metal oxides are formed from the thermal decomposition of the corresponding carbonates. Alkaline earth metal carbonates metal carbonates are obtained as white precipitate when, 1) calculated amount of carbon dioxide is passed through the solution of alkali metal hydroxide, 2) sodium or ammonium carbonate is added to the solution of alkaline earth metal salt such as CaCl2. Similar is the case for CaO, that is, the chair form is the most stable structure, but in the case of SrO and BaO, the ladder form is found to be slightly preferred over the other forms. The bond angle about the metal ion decreases with increasing atomic number of the metal ion (∠OSrO = 82.7°, ∠OBaO = 79.3°), in parallel with the increasing ionic radii of the metal ions. The carbonates of alkaline earth metals also decompose on heating to form oxide and carbon dioxide. 1) Calcium fluoride or fluorspar is the only large scale source of fluorine. It is found that in all cases, the slab form is preferred over the other two. For (MO)4 Where M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba. For this reason, only the optimized structures for (SrO)4 are shown in Figure 3(c). Na2CO3 +heat -> no effect. The Ca–O bond lengths and bond orders are 2.059 Å and 0.566, respectively, in the Ca–O–Ca face, and 2.108 Å and 0.662 in the O–Ca–O face. Since beryllium oxide is high stable, it makes BeC0 3 unstable. We observe that the Mg–O bond distances in the terminal rings of (MgO)6 are reduced when going from the rhombic (slab) to the hexagonal structure from 1.919 Å in the former to 1.891 Å in the latter. For (CaO)3, however, it was found that both initial structures optimized to different geometries.